(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Indians at work"

E ?? 
XS 


- 





£ 



AT WORK : 





<> 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT DF THE INTERIOR 
OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS <• - WASHINGTON, D.C. 



C 



l /£1/-x . _.-f 



INDJANS AT f OU 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF JULY 1938 
Volume V Number 11 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Four Years Of Indian Reorganization D'Arcy McNickle 4 

First Voluntary Assignment Of Allotted Land To 

Tribe Made At Quinaielt, Washington Walter V. Woehlke 12 

Recent Changes Of Assignment 12 

Winnebago Tribal Council Members Learn Local 

School Problems First-Hand 13 

Rosebud Sioux Council Drafts Tax Measure 13 

Salt Roads R. L. Whitcomb 15 

Summary Of Indian Service Appropriations For 

1939 16 

Reorganization News 17 

Lee Muck Becomes Director Of Forests For Interior 17 

CCC-ID Powder School, Fort Apache, Arizona Erik W. Allstrom 19 

Tribal Council Sends Encouraging Report On 

Lower Brule Affairs 20 

The Liquor Question As It Affects Indians 22 

District Camp Supervisor Receives Aquatic In- 
structor's Certificate John P. Watson 26 

Crow Fair Dates Set For August 29 - September 2 26 

Old Array And Marine Corps Clothing Put To Good 

Use 2? 

The American Indian Sign Language John P. Harrington 23 

Montana Indian Girl Wins Essay Prize Mrs . Julia Schutz 33 

Washington Office Visitors 33 

Southwestern Reservations Prepare For Fire 

Season DeWayne Kreager 35 

Zuni The Center 37 

Indians In The News 42 

Navajo Forest Fire Control School Held At Fort 

Defiance , Ari zona, May 2-6 DeWayne Kreager 44 

Cover Page 44 

From CCC-ID Reports 45 



6i 



O 

Si 

s 




■ : r-T—i — - 



1 .•'"■v'yijL ' 

i .■•■■.<■.,■:■,. 

' ■ • ,. ■* 






A NeM& $n$$%r/ tot* l^iaK 



V 









VOLUME 3£ • - JULY 1938 - - NUMBER 11 

Going toward Guatemala, with its million and a quarter 
Indians, and Mexico to the North with its seven or eight millions. 
Paralelling for three days and nights one small segment of that 
vast coastline of the United States which encloses, among its hun- 
dred and thirty million people, a third of a million or less of In- 
dians. Crossing that track where Hudson sailed, and William Perm 
and John Smith and Oglethorpe, and where Cortez sailed, and all who 
came after him into the hitter and splendid Spanish past of North 
America. Crossing, re-crossing and breasting the Gulf Stream which 
carries North Europe's fate. On the Ocean with its boundlessness 
of silent, unnoted events, hardly changing in a hundred million 
years; and now with mesas, buttes and plinths of the Southwestern 
desert, motionless, gathering as clouds above its south and its 
west. Yucatan, sixty miles west, with its dead Indian civilization 
jungle-hidden, mysterious and forever lost. So I come to try to 
face the o_uestion that has been whispering itself for two days: 

What is there - is there anything - that makes the In- 
dians' effort (in the United States), and our governmental effort 
with the Indians worthwhile? What more, that is, than our personal 
Careers whose importance is nothing, and more than that better re- 
alization of even one human possibility which has its absolute im- 
portance though it take place outside the stream of history and in 
a social void; and what more than the feeling of importance that 
enters into every activity excitement, particularly every struggle. 
What, lying outside the "illusion of the near?" 

( Note ; This editorial was written by Commissioner Collier while en 
route to Guatemala for a brief vacation.) 



There comes to thought first, simply the importance of 
faithfully executing a public trust. In the Indians' case the or- 
igin and the continuing motive of the trust are significant. The 
origin blended conquest, public convenience and conscience. The 
continuing motive surely is something else than mere inertia and 
the entanglements of contract and of white advantage. The great 
public looks upon and supports the government's Indian work as an 
effort to do historical justice, to protect the weak, and to keep 
alive values which are deep in the white man's own consciousness. 
No other country has brought, in the absence of necessity political 
or economic, so much of what may be called idealism, conscientious- 
ness or romanticism to its work for its Indians: perhaps, not for 
any minority or dependent group anywhere in the world. This, not 
only now, but across many years, and without regard to the question 
of whether it has done harm or good. 

Then there has come, quite of recent years, the effort to 
bring intelligence - empiricism and invention - to the correction 
and support of good intentions; and so the trust has become an in- 
strument - at least, an intended and possible instrument - of dis- 
covery. Discovery for the sake of guiding action; and discovery 
through action. And here enter certain postulates, or policies, 
which tend to give universal interest to the empirical and inven- 
tive effort, (l) That the Indians possess many native strengths 
and values, which must be made into the central factor in Indian 
service dynamics- They must be sought for, understood, given im- 
portance, made determinants of government action, and "placed" in 
the living social effort of the Indians. (2) That a group self- 
activity, genuinely vested with power, must become the main element 
in Indian administration. (3) Yet, that the Federal responsibility 
must be conserved, being shifted from authority to cooperation. 
(4) That to the group self-activity, and through the Federal serv- 
ice, there shall be brought to the Indians all the kinds of aid, 
from whatever source, that sxe needed and can be assimilated. (5) 
That economic betterment must be paramount, but in the main must 
be sought within the policy-framework above sketched; that the eco- 
nomic betterment must be sought through a planned use of resources, 
in which all technological helps will be called upon but whose ex- 
ecution shall be on a tribal, or an "area-project" or regional ba- 
sis, through the Indians as organized bodies and informed, consent- 
ing and acting bodies, and with the government's non-technical ad- 
ministrators, teachers, and so forth, serving as the principal me- 
diators and agents of contact. The above from (l) to (5) inclusive, 
have laid upon all divisions of Indian service a requirement novel 
and significant, of adapting themselves, integrating themselves to 
a total local human situation and effort within which exist or are 
being imported elements that are profound - from ancestral Indian 
life or simply from the life of man when he copes with his fate in 



groups, and from white life as soon as the teacher, administrator, 
or missionary of religion or of culture makes a thoughtful effort 
to bring to an archaic society the knowledge, processes end values 
which it needs - and only those which it needs, and in the way it 
can take them - from the great society. This requirement has 
hrought to its focus a problem of personnel finding and personnel 
training which well may be the richest in the whole field of gov- 
ernment; also that problem is imposed within rigidities of inherited 
organization, of statute, of budget, of civil service, which make 
accomplishment trebly difficult but also which, if nevertheless 
there be accomplishment, (a) insure its perpetuation through mere 
inertia and (b) endow it with significance and productiveness for 
the whole field of government. 

The above is not merely fact which might be, importance 
which might be. Every item of it exists objectively and is a dom- 
inant fact somewhere in the Indian field. It exists more richly in 
some areas than in others, and opportunities for immediately, man- 
ifestly important achievement in one or another of the connected 
aspects are richer in some areas than in others. However, analysis 
shows that the factor of leadership really is more important than 
the factor of opportunity. I think of many examples but omit them 
here. 

The proposition stands: within the framework sketched in 
paragraph three of this writing, every Indian area can yield, and 
nearly all are yielding in some measure, experience of an importance 
both specific and universal. 

As I write this page, a rainstorm outfolds darkly from 
southeastward toward Cuba. The wind coming with it heaps breakers 
on top of the multi-directioned swell. The vast, living ocean 
flashes to a darker glory In numbers, in quantity however meas- 
ured, our Indians are almost nothing; in the welter of the world 
today we workers with Indians are less than one of the thousand 
ripples on one of these waves. Yet the importance is there, it is 
real, it does reach far; possibly it can enter more productively 
into the national and the world future than many endeavors dealing 
with more massive things. This depends on ourselves, largely. At 
least, we sre not sequestrated, in the Indian work, but are (if we 
will pay attention) connected through it with great, permanent 
world-trends , world-questions, world-needs. 



Jru 




Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



FOUR YflARS OF INDIAN REQRSANIZATION 
By D'Arcy McNickle, Administrative Assistant 
Office of Indian Affairs 




Sara Ann Mayo, Washo Indian Of 

Dresserville (Carson Agency), 

Nevada, Who, Three Tears Ago, 

Walked Twenty-Five Miles To Vote 

For The Indian Reorganization Act. 



In years past, the 
seasons came and went , and left 
the Indians untouched. They 
watched the spring come, watched 
the hot growing weather, and 
watched while the harvest was 
reaped. Through the long win- 
ter they waited and watched and 
kept themselves warm as best 
they could. If they were no 
richer at the end of the year, 
possibly they were a little wis- 
er in Becky Sharp's ways of liv- 
ing on nothing a year. 

Another growing season 
is upon us, and this year, for 
some Indians, there is a differ- 
ence. There are grain fields 
growing. Hay is ripening. Calves 
and lambs are finding their legs. 

It is four years since 
the Indian Reorganization Act was 
passed by Congress and signed by 
the President, four years on June 
18th. In four years tribes have 
beconie organized and incorporated, 
money has gone into tribal treas- 
uries, land has been purchased, 
students have secured loans to 
attend colleges and professional 
schools. For these, life will 
be different this year. 



Many of the things be- 
ing done today through the agency 
of the Reorganization Act have been done in the past. Tribes have 
set up governing bodies before. Tribes have borrowed money from the 



government. But in just these two instances, alone, there are dif- 
ferences. In the past, tribal organization has been nominal- The 
constitutions under which tribes operated were usually no more than 
a set of by-laws governing the conduct of business meetings. In 
the matter of borrowing racney, there was likewise small participa- 
tion by the Indian in the transaction. The superintendent of the 
reservation, seeking to help the Indian and to make profitable use 
of available resources, would recommend and secure approval of a 
reimbursable loan, which the Indians, usually as individuals but 
sometimes as tribes, were persuaded to assume. It was not unheard 
of to have such a loan made for activities which the Indians did 
not approve and in which their participation was half-hearted at 
best. The ratio of bad loans under this system was inordinately 
high, and the feeling grew up in the Service and out of it that In- 
dians were irresponsible - poor credit risks- It was easy to prove 
the case on the basis of the record. 

The Indian Reorganization Act, apart from certain legal 
developments, is primarily a training school in self-government 
and economic self-management . The Act made possible the granting 
of specific powers to tribal governments. These powers are writ- 
ten into the constitutions or charters which the tribes are adopt- 
ing. Thus the tribal governments are not the functionless 'debat- 
ing societies of the past. They are municipal councils with specif- 
ic powers to perform. A tribal government which successfully per- 
forms the duties assumed by it will find itself taking over more 
and more of the authority which in the past was exercised by the 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs and his agents. 

In the matter of defining its membership, of governing 
the conduct of its members, of enforcing law and order, of leasing 
tribal land and managing tribal resources, of governing its elec- 
tions, of providing aid for its aged and indigent, the tribes can 
go about as far as they choose and can devise the means for . 

So, in the matter of borrowing money, there is an impor- 
tant difference. A source of credit is not in itself the vital 
thing. But when money borrowing is made a function of economic 
planning and of studying resources for their profitable exploita- 
tion, then there is hope. It is just in this way that the Reorgan- 
ization Act breaks with the past. A number of loans have been made, 
the statistics of which will be given in a moment, and in each case 
the actual transfer of money from the revolving credit fund to the 
Indian tribe was preceded by weeks of study and discussion. For 
many Indians this was the first time they had even thought of their 
reservation objectively, as a place in which to invest money. There 
was also a study of individual character more exacting than most 
bankers' practice. When finally the money was in hand, its appor- 




Front Row - Shoshone Council : Gilbert Day, Chairman, 

Charles Washakie, Benjamin Perry, Frank Cordova, Robert Harris, 

and Lynn St. Clair. Back Row - Arapaho Council ; Nellie 

Scott, Chairman, Bruce Grosebeck, Charles Whiteman, 

Mike Goggles, Sr., John Goggles, and Robert Friday. 

Wind River Reservation, Wyoming. 

tioned use was already provided for, and it went with activities 
for which there was a definite need and in which return was fairly 
assured. Payments on these loans have in every case to date been 
ahead of schedule. And that is the proof. 



The Indian Reorganization Act is four years old on the 
statute books, but actually it has been in operation only three 
years, since the first appropriations were not available until the 
year after its passage. Let us review the statistics of these 
three functioning years. 

The Indian tribes were given the question of what they 
intended to do with the law after it was put on the statute books. 
They could vote yes or no on its acceptance. A total of 266 tribes, 
bands, or groups were asked to ballot on the question. Of that 
total 189 tribes, with a population of 130,173 Indians, accepted 
the law. A group of 77 tribes, representing 86,365 Indians i re- 
jected it. When first written, the Reorganization Act excluded 
the Indians of Oklahoma and Alaska from all but a few minor provi- 




Superintendent Alida C Bowler of Carson Agency In Nevada, 
And The Walker River Tribal Council 



sions. In 1936 the 28 tribes in Oklahoma, excluding only the Osage, 
and the natives of Alaska were permitted to take full advantage of 
the Act. This added approximately 120,000 Indians to the total. Thus 
today, 250,000 Indians are carrying on under a new order, while 85,000 
Indians are on the outside, many of them requesting a chance to re- 
verse their decision. 



In this month of June, constitutions and by-laws have been 
adopted by 82 tribes, having a combined population of 93,520. Of 
these, 57 tribes, with 64,074 members, have become chartered corpora- 
tions. Incorporation is necessary before money can be borrowed from 
the revolving credit fund. 

Summarizing credit operations, commitments of $3,503,811 
have been made and a total of $1,131,805 has actually been advanced 
to tribal corporations. An additional sum of $65,000 has still to 
be approved. In Oklahoma, loans are made on a slightly different 
basis and so separate figures are kept. The total amount advanced 
in loans direct to individuals or to Indian credit associations is 
$682,000, and only a negligible amount is awaiting approval. 



Land purchase, one of Reorganization' 3 main objectives, 
will progress slowly. Congress has not made available in any one 
year the $2,000,000 authorized in the law. The total amount of 
land purchase money after three years of appropriations has been 
but $2,950,000. With these funds purchase has been completed of 
168,654 acres, while 235., 57? acres are under option with purchase 
still to be completed. The Act also authorized the return of sur- 
plus land to reservation holdings, when in the opinion of the Sec- 
retary of the Interior it was deemed advisable. Under this author- 
ity, a total of 350,000 acres has been returned to Indian ownership. 
A vast area of 5,000,000 acres of such so-called surplus lands, 
lands which were set apart for homestead entry, is subject to this 
authority. 

In years past, Indians were especially handicapped by 
lack of higher education. The state universities were open to 
them if they could get together the registration fees and support 
themselves while attending classes. Comparatively few Indians had 
the encouragement or the means to continue after they finished an 
Indian Service boarding school or a public high school. Here, too, 
the Reorganization Act is changing the picture. Funds are available 
under the Act for advancing educational loans to interested students. 
At the present time, 445 students are attending college and profes- 
sional schools with the help of such loans. 

Out of this background of statistics emerges an array of 
human facts which gives reality to this story of Reorganization. It 
isn't enough to have a law on the statute books. The law must oper- 
ate in the lives of men and women before it begins to have meaning. 
The meaning is coming into being. 

At Hydaburg, a village of 318 natives on Prince of Wales 
Island in Alaska, community organization and incorporation will 
make possible the rejuvenation of a local canning and fishing indus- 
try which for years has struggled along on insufficient financing. 
The community is well worth investing in, as its records show. It 
owns its own town hall, its shipping dock, it is clear of all debts 
and its individual families own their own homes, the average value 
of which is $1,500. Twenty-five of the natives own their own seine 
boats and seven own salmon trollers, each boat being valued at ap- 
proximately $2,500. There is also a cooperative community store 
which was organized in 1911 and at present owns a capital stock of 
$33,000. Almost every individual in the community is a stockholder. 
The store is managed entirely by natives. With money to keep the 
local cannery operating at capacity, the village population will be 
assured of its future income. 



At Hopi, where nine separate villages (speaking two lan- 
guages and several dialects) have come down through the centuries, 
each jealous of its own identity and its own sovereignty, what seemed 
impossible was attempted - and achieved. Anthropologists and old 
Service men, some of them, were alike in their feeling that Hopi 
would have none of tribal organization - of any kind of organiza- 
tion which meant a working together of all the villages. There was 
no tradition for it, and Hopi followed tradition. But they were 
wrong. Hopi did want organization, or, as it is put in the preamble 
of the constitution, it wanted "a way of working together for peace 
and agreement between the villages and of preserving the good things 
of Hopi life, and to provide a way of organizing -bo deal with modern 
problems with the United States Government and with the world gener- 
ally." Only once, in a history going back to the days before the 
Spanish invasion, had such united action been taken. That was in 
1680, when the Hopi villages, along with the other Pueblos, joined 
in wrath to drive the Spaniards out of New Mexico. 

At Tongue River Reservation in Montana an ambitious tribal 
steer enterprise has been set up, and after a year of operation, is 
running ahead of expectations. The Northern Cheyenne Indians living 
on this reservation have been in the cattle business before, and 
have come to grief. The long, hard winter experienced in their part 
of the country is especially destructive to calf crops, a factor 
which has brou^it ruin to any plan of starting with a foundation 
herd and building up a marketable surplus. The present scheme of 
operations is one requiring heavy financing, but in the end it 
should prove a profitable one. To begin with, the tribe is borrow- 
ing each year $85,000, and with this loan is purchasing yearling 
steers for summer and winter feeding. The steers will be sold at 
the end of the second summer on the range, and the proceeds will 
pay back the first loan of $85,000 and part of the second year's 
advance of the same amount . 

Gradually, the amount of indebtedness will be decreased 
and the amount of earnings invested in the enterprise increased, 
until eventually it will operate without further borrowing. The 
plan is a flexible one, since in a poor year purchases may be cur- 
tailed or suspended entirely; the number of steers carried through 
the winter will always be less by half than are carried in the sum- 
mer, thus lessening the chances of winter losses and the cost of 
winter feeding. 

At Blackfeet, there has been a thorough overhauling of 
tribal economy. For years this reservation, the largest in Montana, 
has been under an economic cloud, the result, largely, of lack of 
planning. Irrigated land for providing winter feed, credit for 
financing individual and tribal needs in livestock and farming e- 
quipment, rehabilitation funds for reestablishing families on the 



land - these are the pressing needs. The tribal council has taken 
the initiative in seeking a solution to its problems. With its 
own funds, and with funds which the government will advance from 
money appropriated under the Indian Reorganization Act, an exten- 
sive program of economic rehabilitation has been started. 

At Jicarilla there has also been an interesting transform- 
ation. With good reason, those familiar with the tribe doubted 
that reorganization would interest its members . For years it had 
been considered among the most "backward" of the tribes. It had 
no tradition of leadership, and it did not seem possible at this 
late date to introduce a concept foreign to the tribal experience. 
In spite of these misgivings something has happened at Jicarilla. 
The tribe has become incorporated and has taken over the extensive 
trading establishment owned and operated by a white man for a num- 
ber of years. Evidently the Jicarillas can advance without strong 
individual leadership. They do it by unanimous action. In their 
elections to date, almost no negative votes have been cast. The 
Jicarillas move as one body. 

At Rosebud, out in the Sioux country, a submerged social 
structure has been brought out of hiding. For years tribal decisions 
have been made, not in general council meetings, but in the local 
communities, the Tioshpai, the existence of which was not even known 
to most government men directing the reservation. 

Now, recognized and given a chance to function, these 
community organizations are proving invaluable in reaching the peo- 
ple of the tribe and getting united action. 

At Flathead, the first tribe to set its house in order, 
organization found a unique opportunity. A great power company, 
which in 1932 had been licensed to develop the Flathead power site, 
one of the most important sites in the whole Northwest, had de- 
faulted on its contract and was playing the part of the dog in the 
manger, while the Interior and Justice Departments searched for a 
way out. Having become incorporated, and having therefore the 
legal right to sue in its own name, the Flathead Tribe took steps 
to bring suit for damages amounting to $7,000,000. This was just 
the impetus needed. Almost overnight the power company thought 
better of its tactics and sought a new contract, in which vital 
concessions were made to the tribe. Very shortly now a great dam 
will be completed at Flathead and the tribal treasury will begin 
to receive a large annual rental from the sale of power. But Flat- 
head has done more than win a legal battle. Aware of the serious 
land problem which it, like tribes everywhere face, it is asking 
Congress for the right to use its own funds for land purchase. It 
is not willing to wait for Congress to appropriate money at some 
indefinite time in the future. It wants to go ahead now, and it 
is willing to take the initiative. 



10 



These are but a few highlights in the general scene. They 
indicate some of the currents that have been set up. They axe not 
intended to indicate how far the trend has gone or how soon any one 
question will be answered. Something has started, and here is the 
general direction in which it moves. 

What has been done, in truth, is only a fragment of the 
task remaining. Tribal governments have serious need of education 
in public administration, in Indian laws, treaties and regulations, 
and in the use of the powers embedded in their own constitutions. 
Failure to get this education may fairly well destroy the whole 
purpose of the reorganization program. 

There is a tendency in Congress to reduce the funds allottee 
for Indian Reorganization purposes, in its theory that, now that, so 
many of the tribes are organized, the need for future work is dimin- 
ishing. This is an unfortunate view to take, since it jeopardizes 
every advance made up to this time. It is not a simple matter of 
organizing tribes and lending money to them. They will need, for 
several years yet, as much encouragement and assistance as can be 
given them, not in the doing of things for them, but in showing 
them how they can do for themselves. 

No government can function without revenue. So long as 
tribal funds remain tied up in the United States Treasury, the 
tribes will have to look elsewhere for the funds necessary to oper- 
ate on. Those fortunate tribes possessing land which can be leased 
have such a source of income ready at hand- But there are many 
tribes who have no such resources, and for these the whole machin- 
ery of self-government may remain stalled indefinitely. 

The problem of allotted and heirship lands is a stagger- 
ing one to deal with; yet, on many reservations the whole future 
of economic development is tied up with the question of how best 
to deal with the situation. 

On most reservations the problem of law and order is 
acute. Federal jurisdiction extends only to the ten "major" crimes. 
Beyond those is avast shadow-land of domestic relations, misde- 
meanors and general community problems which neither the state nor 
the federal government has dealt with successfully. Good communi- 
ties will not be built up where law and order remains chaotic. The 
Indian Reorganization Act clothes the tribes with sufficient author- 
ity to handle such questions, but they have ahead of them the task 
of learning the proper use of their powers. 

The problems are many and certainly there is no intention 
of belittling them. It is possible, nevertheless, to realize that 
where in the past there have been only misgiving and despair for 
the future of the Indians, today there is reason to be hopeful. For 
some Indians, at least, there is already a difference. Something 
has begun to happen. When this year's harvest comes around, some 
few Indians will have something to garner. That is a beginning. 

11 



FIRST VOLUNTARY ASSIGNMENT OF ALLOTTED LAND TO TRIBE 
MADE AT QUINAIELT . WASHINGTON 

By Walter V. Woehlke, Assistant to the Commissioner 



Ferrill Johnson, Quinaielt allottee No- 903, has conveyed 
to the United States in trust for the Quinaielt Trice, title to his 
allotment . Ordinarily such a conveyance would not attract more than 
passing attention; but in this instance, the action of allottee John- 
son has real significance. It is the first known instance of the 
voluntary return of a piece of allotted land to tribal ownership. 

The results of allotment, the loss of land to the Indians,, 
and the subdivision of allotments into numerous unusable heirship 
fractions, are too well-known to need repetition. The cure for this 
allotted land disease lies in the return of title to allotments and 
to heirship lands to the United States in trust for the tribe, the 
Indian making the transfer receiving back either an assignment of 
land or an equivalent interest in tribal property or benefits- 

The allotment conveyed by Ferrill Johnson to the Quinaielt 
Tribe had been denuded of its timber. By a very heavy investment 
for clearing, a portion of the allotment might have been made avail- 
able for farming, but its principal value lay in the production of 
more trees. No private owner could have afforded to have reforested 
this land. But the tribe and the Federal Government could carry out 
these reforestation processes, incidentally affording a certain 
amount of work for the allottee. Seeing clearly that both the tribe 
and he individually would be benefited by this transfer, the allottee 
relinquished his title in favor of the tribe. Now reforestation 
activities can take place on this new piece of tribal land. 

Other owners of allotments in similar condition on the 
Quinaielt Reservation will probably likewise convey their allotments 
to the tribe, according to a recent report from Superintendent Nels 

0. Nicholson. 

***** * * * 
RECENT CHANGES OF ASSIGNMENT 

Several changes were made in superintendents' assignments 
on June 1. Lewis W. Page, formerly a supervisor in the CCC-ID, be- 
came Superintendent at the Choctaw Agency in Mississippi; Archie 
Hector, formerly Choctaw Superintendent, became Superintendent of 
the Shawnee Agency in Oklahoma; and Fred E. Perkins,* formerly Shawnee 
Superintendent, became Field Supervisor At Large, with headquarters 
at Muskogee, Oklahoma. 

12 



WINNEBAGO TRIBAL COUNCIL MEMBERS LEARN LOCAL 
SCHOOL PROBLEMS FIRST-HAND 



On May 3, Superintendent Gabe E. Parker, Assistant Di- 
rector of Education Paul Fickinger, Superintendent of Schools Joe 
Jennings, Superintendent Samuel H. Thompson and Principal Richard 
Mortenson met with the Macy Public School Board for the purpose 
of formulating a contract for the operation of the Macy Government 
School in Macy, Nebraska, for the coming school year. The unusual 
feature of the meeting, however, was the fact that Superintendent 
Parker invited the Omaha Tribal Council to be present during the 
discussion of the regulations between the Indian Office representa- 
tives and the members of the Public School Board. 

During the discussion, the taxing system and the financial 
situation of the local district were fully discussed. The economic 
situation, the debt of the local school board, and state aid -were 
also considered. Ways and means of meeting the desperate financial 
situation of the Macy Public School Board were proposed, and a long 
discussion followed as to the type of school program that should 
be offered, the needs of both whites and Indians, and whether or 
not state recognition -should be requested. During all of these 
discussions the members of the tribal council participated and made 
many pertinent suggestions. 



ROSEBUD SIOUX COUNCIL DRAFTS TAX MEASURE 
A3 PROPOSED SOURCE OF OPERATING REVENUE 



Efficient self-government, members of the tribal council 
of the Rosebud Sioux in South Dakota have realized, calls for a 
certain amount of money on which to operate- To raise the money, 
the council has drawn a tentative ordinance calling for various 
types of small taxes: a poll tax, a motor vehicle tax, a dog tax, 
a tax on livestock owned by Indians, a tax upon Indian Service em- 
ployees, a tax upon permits to Indians to live on tribal and admin- 
istrative reserves and a tax upon lease contracts. 

The Rosebud Sioux know that this proposed measure is a 
pioneer one; consequently the council has invited comments and crit- 
icism from agency workers and has had the proposed ordinance mime- 
ographed and distributed among members of the tribe. Washington 
office officials also were asked for suggestions during the recent 
visit of council members to Washington. This procedure is indica- 
tive of the constructive thinking being done among many Indian 
groups and of their eagerness to secure cooperation from all sources. 



13 



o 
o 



5 

o 

ro 

<<l 



B 



3 ; Wk 

■ 2 




?*S*4 i .'»..'•'■' ;.'| 





■s 



M 

Ol, 



■a 

CO 



, ., 




1 . ■;%' 


- i ■■ 


•• : - M?' 7 




5r 




:L ■ 




3 

* 








m 





9 

tn 

a 
w 

<§ 

i 

© 
U 
Ph 
CO 

■a 

CO 




ID 



o 
o 

id 

•r-l 



9 



to 

CO 
M 



.o 

CO 



CO 




IP 

3 

CO 

do 





o 



14 



SALT ROADS 



By R. L- Whitcomb, District Road Engineer 




Spreading Windrowed Material With Patrol. 



"Tell," 
said the old Choctaw 
to his friend, "they 
are going to build 
road out of salt. Road 
engineer crazy. Bet 
cows - hogs lick her 
all up in week. Here 
come bunch of Road 
boys now. Find out 
about salt lick road." 

The old Choc- 
taw watches, listens 
and learns . 



The next day, after watching the Indian Road gang lay 
about a half-mile of the "salt lick" road, the old Choctaw again 
met his friend. "I watch boys put down salt stuff," he said. "Go 
out to gravel pit. Get just right kind gravel. Shake hsr 'round 
many box screen on bottom. Put little clay in. Mix all up. Pile 
on road. 

"Big machine named patrol come. Push gravel all around. 
Thing like wheat drill come. Sprinkle salt all over whole business. 
Soak it down, sprinkle water. Thing like big automobile come. Big 
wheels, no engine. Roll her down. Smooth and hard like ice. Boya 
say road wear long, 
long time. Boys 
say this road cheap 
- thirteen hundred 
dollars mile . 

"Keep 
school bus out of 
mud. Guess I bet- 
ter ^et job on salt 
road. Guess Road 
boys know how." 
***** 

Spreading Salt With Mechanical Spreader. 




15 



SUMMARY OF INDIAN SERVICE APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1939 



The act making appropriations for the Department of the 
Interior for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1939, approved May 9, 
1933, provides funds for the various activities of the Indian Serv- 
ice, exclusive of re-appropriations and continuing appropriations, 
totaling $31,911,314.66. This sum is made up from general funds 
of the Treasury $30,424,356.66 and from tribal funds and school 
revenues to the extent of $1,486,985. 

The following tabulation gives a comparison of the ap- 
propriations made from the general funds of the Treasury for vari- 
ous activities for the fiscal years 1938 and 1939: 



Fiscal Year 


Fiscal Year 


Increase Or 


1938 


1939 


Decrease 


General Expenses-. $1,772,010.00 


$1,784,490.00 


+ $12,480.00 




753,960 .66 


-718,509.19 


Industrial Assist- 






ance & Advance- 






ment 1 9. IP 500 .on 


1,931,000.00 


- 1,500.00 


Development of 


Water Supply 70,000.00 


70,000.00 




Irrigation & Drain- 








3.873.196.00 


+■ 481. 923. 00 




10,218,190.00 


+ 149,665.00 


Conservation of 








5,432,000.00 


+•466,310.00 


General Support & 






Administration.. 2,690,100.00 


2,735,500.00 


45,400.00 


Roads & Bridges ... 3,020,000.00 


1,020,000.00 


-2,000,000.00 


Annuities, per cap- 






ita payments & in- 






terest on tribal 








736,020.00 


+ 35,000.00 


Construction, etc., 


Buildings & Util- 








1,870,000.00 


-177,500.00 




TOTALS $32,131,087.85 


$30,424,356.66 - 


$1,706,731.19 



Use of tribal funds is authorized for such general pur- 
poses as education, $312,995; support of Indians and administration 
of Indian property, $378,810; relief of needy Indians, $100,000; 
and expenses of tribal councils and delegations to Washington, $50,000. 

There are few new appropriation items in the act for 1939. 
One such item is $25,000 for a survey and appraisal of the property 



16 



and reindeer authorized to be acquired for the natives of Alaska 
under the provisions of an act approved September 1, 1937. 

The unexpended balances of appropriations totaling more 
than $1,700,000 made by various acts since 1928 from the tribal 
funds of the Indians and authorized to be expended for industrial 
assistance to individual members of the tribes are continued as 
available for the fiscal year 1939. The expenditures from these 
funds are to be repaid to the tribe and all such repayments are 
credited back to the tribal account and become available for addi- 
tional loans. The principal change in this item for the fiscal 
year 1939 is the provision that the appropriations under this head- 
ing for any tribe may be advanced to such tribe, if incorporated, 
for making loans to members of the tribal corporation under rules 
and regulations established for the making of loans from the re- 
volving loan fund authorized by the Indian Reorganization Act of 
1934. 



REORGANIZATION NEWS 
Charters ; Yes No 

April 23 Warm Springs Indians of Oregon 180 62 

May 21 Bad River Indians of Wisconsin 105 80 

May 23 Stockbridge - Munsee Indians of 

Wisconsin 94 

May 23 Kalispel Indians of Idaho 21 1 

June 6 Fort McDowell, Arizona 71 4 

Constitutions : 

May 18 Kiowa Apache Indians of Oklahoma ... 62 73* 

May 31 Te-Moak Indians of Nevada 47 20 

Amendment to Charter ; 

April 30 Makah Indians of Washington Did not carry 

because of lack of 30$ vote. 

Amendment to Constitution : 

May 14 Oneida Indians of Wisconsin Did not carry 

becau se o f la ck of 30-% vo te . 



•This is the second time this group has voted down a constitution. 



* 



LEE MUCK BE COMES DIRECT OR OF FORESTS FOR INTERIOR DEPARTMENT 

Lee Muck, Director of Forestry and Grazing for the Indian 
Service, has been appointed by Secretary Ickes as Director of For- 
ests for the Department of the Interior, a post newly created to 
coordinate all the activities in forest conservation and management 
on public lands under the jurisdiction of the Department of the In- 
terior. He will continue in his Indian Service position. 

17 



o 

i— i 

3 



3 
Si 



31 
3 




i^L'H^fa. . .— - - 



tun 

a 



u 



o 
a) 
»-s 

(3 

i-i 
O 

« 

® 



o 

u 



o 
o 
o 




o 
u 

o 

o 

Xi 



CD 

a 
o 

c 



00 

C 




PI 







OX 

c 

ft 
m 

u 

CD 

B • 

•H t4 

(-1 ® 

O 

«< .H 

3 O 

O U 
** +» 

o 

CD 



&, 



CD 
P< 

o 

h 

Ph 

CD 

.a 




6X 
-H 

o 
p 

CO 

CD 
O 



O 

u 
c 
'3 



I 
o 

o 
o 

<w 
O 

* 
CD 
•H 

CD 
O 



18 



CCC-ID POWDER SCHOOL . FORT APACHE . ARIZONA 
By Erik W. Allstrom, Camp Superintendent, CCC-ID 



"F-i-i-i-^lh-^, ,, echoed from down the road and up the road 
and over on the short-cut trail. Shortly there came the heavy 
"boom" of the blast, as one hundred thirty-seven holes of dynamite 
were exploded by the current of a forty-hole battery. 

So ended the three-day powder handling class held concur- 
rently with the District Fire Fighting School on the Fort Apache 
Reservation late in April. (See page 35.) 

When the enrollees gathered for the Fire School at White- 
river they were accompanied by seven extra men, four from the Fort 
Apache Reservation, and three others, one each from Truxton Canon, 
Mescalero and Ute Mountain. When they were not taking part in the 
work of dynamite handling they took part with the others in fire 
prevention and fire fighting work- 

The instructors, representatives of two powder companies 
which furnish the government with electric exploders, expressed 
themselves as being well impressed with the way the Indian boys 
handled the jack-hammers in drilling holes for blasting. 

When the correct number of holes had been drilled on two 
different actual jobs of road building, the boys were carefully in- 
structed in springing deep holes and cleaning them, in making dyna- 
mite primers and in different methods of electric wiring for most 
advantageous use of blasting powder. A number of the supervising 
and facilitating personnel present at the Fire School also attended 
the powder demonstrations and indicated that they were highly 
pleased at the way it was being done, and at the opportunity to 
learn some new things for themselves. Of particular interest was 
the method of "series in parallel" hook-up, whereby it was possible 
to shoot one hundred thirty-seven holes with a battery otherwise 
only strong enough to handle forty holes. 



( Note : Photographs which appear on the opposite page are by Erik 
W. Allstrom. ) 



19 



TRIBAL COUNCIL SENDS ENCOURAGING- REPORT ON LOWER BRULB AFFAIRS 
Loner Brule Reservation, Crow Creek Agency, South Dakota 

April 12, 1938. 

Indians At Work, 
Washington, D. C. 

You may want to hear the Lower Brule news. 

The greatest thing the Indian Office ever done, was this T.C.B. 
I .A.* group investigating the Indians* conditions- Now the Indian 
Affairs can say they know the conditions of the Indians, especially 
Lower Brule Tribe. For the past 18 or 20 years the Lower Brule 
Tribe had been ditched but now for the last three years our govern- 
ment try to get us out of the ditch. The Lower Brule Tribe were 
neglected for about 18 years, but about two years ago Mr. Collier 
came to us and see the condition we was in and sympathy with us 
and he promise us that he is going to get us out this ditch we are 
in. Now I can say we got out of this ditch. 

We have in operation a good school. We have a teacher - Mr. 
Arehart, Miss Mattson and also Mrs. Arehart are all good people. 
The children axe getting noon dinners, plenty milk to drink and 
gaining weight right along. They are teaching manual training. 
They are busy training and trying to bring the younger people to 
the front and fixing up and repairing buildings. Now they are. 
adding a washroom and toilet on the schoolhouse. And we expect 
to have a better school than any other reservation. And the chil- 
dren are very glad to go to school. And this shows that we have 
a good leader. And we also have a good community hall with a place 
to can, electric lights and hot air heater. This is one of the 
greatest improvements we got. And we have 17 new houses with base- 
ments and toilets. 

Now some of our young people are getting out on farms which 
is bought with Reorganization funds and they will get loans from 
the revolving funds to stock up by live-stock. We got enough sur- 
plus land now that we can run 5,000 head of cattle on this reserva- 
tion. Also the farmer, Mr. Roush is very busy with the 4-H Club 



*The Indian Service cannot take all the credit for this survey; it 
is one of a series of economic surveys being conducted cooperative- 
ly on a number of reservations by the Soil Conservation Service's 
unit on Technical Cooperation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 



20 



boys and girls, starting out 18 acres of community garden end also 
seven acres of individual gardens. That give every person a chance 
to prepare for the winter coming. This ground is all prepared and 
in good shape now and all is going to he under irrigation and I 
think we are going to accomplish something if the grasshoppers and 
mormon crickets don't beat us- 

And Superintendent, Mr. Hyde and his assistant, Mr. Scott, are 
very busy working with us, and I might include Mr. Mount j"oy and Mr. 
Ben Reifel all cooperate with us. And the stock association is 
going full swing. We got a herd now of over 600 head. We have In- 
dian directors for our association. Mr. Jim Byrnes, Mr. Alex Ren- 
countre and Mr. Moses DeSrait. Mr. Moses BeSmit is the foreman over 
the association for cattle and they are going to farm about 600 
acres at the cattle ranch. They have bought machinery to operate 
the farms which will be worked by the Indians themselves. And al- 
so we have such a good doctor that our population is increasing. 
And it would be far better if we had a field nurse. Now I don't 
care what other people think or say. We get lot of function from 
this New Deal and we appreciate very much. If nothing happens I 
think we will get back on our feet again. 

The history of Lower Brule Tribe is a clean one. Our great 
chief, Iron Nation, was popular because he wasn't a warrior or a 
grea/t medicine man or a Ghost Dancer. He was a chief and a peace 
maker. He got his people engage in peace and in farming and stock 
raising. So his tribe was a leading tribe in the Sioux Nation. It 
shows in the history. He send man out to other Sioux warriors to 
have peace with other nations- It shows on the record- The Iron 
Nation Tribe of Lower Brule was going to get 50 head of mares from 
the government and also 100 blankets but he gave this to other 
tribes to quiet their warriors so Iron Nation is a great peace 
maker. His tribe, the Lower Brule, was a leading tribe in every- 
thing you might say. His tribe was the first one to accept the 
religion on the west side of the river and other good things that 
come from the government. He always advise his tribe to take it 
and since him and his leaders have passed away seems as though we 
are a lost tribe, but now our young generation are waking up and 
trying to get back where our leaders left off • 

Chairman of the Lower Brule Council, 
By the Lower Brule Council, 

(Signed) Reuben Sstes- 



21 



TBJ LIQ.UOR QUESTION AS IT AFFBCTS INDIANS 



The prohibition of alcohol among Indians is a problem 
which is of strong interest to Indians and to those concerned with 
Indian welfare today. Sharply conflicting views have been presented 
by Indian Service workers, friends of Indians, and Indians them- 
selves. 

Under the present law, there has been until 1933 univer- 
sal prohibition of the sale of alcohol to Indians and prohibition of 
the possession or transportation of liquor on Indian reservations. 
Enforcement of these laws is almost wholly an Indian Service respon- 
sibility. 

In recent years, Congress has passed a number of acts 
breaking down to some extent the uniformity of the Indian liquor 
laws. Through the Hastings Amendment in 1934, the entire Five Civ- 
ilized Tribes and Quapaw Areas of Oklahoma were taken out from the 
Indian liquor laws. In June 1933, Congress passed a law authoriz- 
ing the manufacture, sale and possession of 3.2 per cent beer in 
Oklahoma if legalized by the State. In July the State legalized 
the sale of 3.2 beer and it was held that this action, coupled with 
the Congressional Act of June 15, 1933, removed the prohibition a- 
gainst the sale of 3.2 per cent beer to Indians in Oklahoma. Last 
year the town of Hardin, Montana, within the Crow Reservation, was 
exempted from the Indian liquor laws by Act of Congress, but the 
sale of liquor specifically to Indians within Hardin continues to 
be prohibited. Congress has also legislated to permit the intro- 
duction of liquor into portions of the Chippewa treaty area in Min- 
nesota. 

Answering a question propounded by the House Committee 
on Appropriations at a hearing this past winter, Commissioner Col- 
lier stated that effective law enforcement among the Indians would 
require an annual appropriation of not less than $690,000. The 
amount provided in the Interior Appropriation Bill passed by the 
House is only $237,290. 

Secretary Ickes has stated: 

"Prohibition is enforced without much difficulty 
in those regions where the Indians live apart from 
whites. And there are Pueblo Tribes which obtain com- 
plete enforcement through their own self-governing or- 
dinances, even though they are located close to white 



22 



towns. Where Indians are scattered among whites, the 
enforcement of prohibition against Indians is a costly 
and to some extent an ineffectual operation. Yet the 
case of Alaska indicates that absence of prohibitory- 
laws does not make for temperance among Indians. The 
situation presents one of the most baffling problems 
in connection with the guardianship of Indians, and 
one of the gravest problems of Indian life." 

The Klamath Tribe of Oregon, whose members live close 
to white towns, such as Klamath Palls and Chiloquin, has had a bill 
introduced in Congress to create a system of local option. Under 
the terms of this bill, if the tribe exercised its option, a per- 
mit system, modeled upon the experience of Sweden, would be sub- 
stituted for prohibition; that is, individual Indians would be 
granted permits to purchase and consume liquor which would be re- 
voked by the tribal council if the permittees showed marked intem- 
perance or if abuse of the permits became evident. The tribal council 
of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Res- 
ervation in Montana has unanimously endorsed a measure to permit 
the sale of light wines and beer. On the other side, serious pres- 
entations have been made to the effect that in the absence of any 
prohibitory legislation, natives of Alaska are being debauched to 
the extent of threatening the existence of whole communities. But 
even within Alaska, there are groups of Indians sharply opposed to 
any discriminatory legislation prohibiting the sale of liquor to 
Indians. 

At an election on March 26, the Potawatomi Indians of 
Kansas registered opinion on the question of whether to petition 
the Indian Office to sponsor a bill to permit the sale of 3-2 per 
cent beer to Indians in Kansas. The vote proved to be against a 
petition: 80 to 23. According to newspaper accounts, the women 
of the jurisdiction were the deciding factor. 

A tragedy of frightful proportions at Fort Totten, North 
Dakota, a year ago last winter focussed attention sharply on the 
liquor problem and the allied problem of prohibitory legislation. 
Eleven Indians, men and women, died in January 1937 from the effects 
of drinking automobile anti-freeze alcohol. Six children were com- 
pletely orphaned and six more lost one parent. 

Several of the Indian tribes which have organized under 
the Indian Reorganization Act and have undertaken to adopt a law 
and order code pursuant with their constitutions have specifical- 
ly included a section providing a penalty for the sale, trade, pos- 
session, and so forth, of intoxicating liquors. 



23 



Here sire a few sample opinions on the Indian prohibition 
question: 



said: 



An Indian Service superintendent, himself of Indian blood, 

"I can't tell you how strongly I am opposed to 
letting Indians have free access to liquor. If the law 
is repealed - well, I don't want to be at this reserva- 
tion; that's all." 

On the same question, a full-blood Indian judge said, 
through an interpreter: 

"Some Indians do not like being treated differ- 
ent from the white man about drinking. It is as if we 
were children. The way to be wise about something is to 
learn about it by experience, a little at a time, and to 
learn by the mistakes you make. I think we Indians can 
learn to control ourselves at least as well as the white 
men do. But this drinking - it is a serious problem. It 
can be a very bad thing, especially for the young people. 
I do not want my people to come to harm just because they 
want to imitate what white people (and some of them not j 
good white people) do. If they ever change the law, they 
should think about it a long time first." 

A white resident of Tucson writes to Commissioner Collier 
as follows (it might be said that the writer's assumption that gen- 
eral legislation affecting Indian prohibition is now, or has been 
under consideration, is erroneous): 

"I have noted in the press here that a movement 
is on foot to give Indians the right to purchase wines 
and beer. 

"I have lived in Arizona more than eighteen 
years, have had Indian help, both male and female, and 
know of the effect on Indians of alcohol from actual con- 
tact with the Indians here. I know that alcohol cannot 
be taken by Indians in modaration. The effect on them is 
dangerous in the extreme." 

A member of the tribal council at Klamath Agency, Oregon, 
where a bill for a permit system has been sponsored, discussed his 
views as follows: 

"I can't speak for other reservations, but I think I know 
our own situation pretty thoroughly. And it is this: prohibition 



24 



simply can't be enforced at Klamath with' the personnel now avail- 
able. Let me describe the reservation. There are 1,106,000 acres 
within its limits. Over 5,000 people live in those limits and only 
1,100 of them are Indians. Under the law, none of those 3,900 
whites are supposed to possess or transport liquor, whether for 
their own use or for Indians 1 use. They do, of course, and a lot 
of it reaches the Indians- 

"There is a state liquor store fourteen miles away at 
Fort Klamath. At Chiloquin, five miles from the agency, a town of 
about 1,850 population, near where there are many Indian homes, 
beer is sold. Beer is sold at Sprague River and at Bly there is 
another state liquor store. At Klamath Falls, our nearest large 
town, 35 miles from the agency, there is another state liquor store 
and a number of places which sell beer. 

"Running north and south through the western part of the 
reservation are the San Francisco-Portland Highway and two rail- 
roads. Running east and west, with a number of flag stops, is the 
Great Northern Railroad; also a state highway. 

"Scattered throughout the reservation are a number of 
logging camps - each with one to two hundred employees - some of 
them Indians, but mostly whites. 

"For all this area there are three Indian Service law 
enforcement officers; one at Beatty, one at Sprague River and one 
at Klamath Agency. There is a county officer and also a town of- 
ficer at Chiloquin, a county officer at Sprague River and a county 
officer at Beatty. These men are supposed to do all the law en- 
forcement work, not just liquor law enforcement, in an area almost 
as big as the State of Delaware. 

"Another point to consider is that this situation is not 
going to change. We have several billion feet of timber at Klamath 
which is still to be marketed over a period of years. Tne logging 
camps and mills and the intermixture of white people on the reser- 
vation will continue. The liquor law is going to be just as hard 
to enforce in the future as it is now. 

"I think it would be only sensible to recognize the fact 
that the la.w isn't being enforced - as the country as a whole rec- 
ognized the failure of the general prohibition amendment - and to 
change the law. We Klamaths are citizens and voters and would like 
to see our opinions put into effect. " 

The situation, then, is this: No legislation affecting 
prohibition for Indians has been proposed by the Department of the 



25 



Interior on behalf of the Indian Service. No general legislation 
of any kind has been proposed. At the request of the Indians in- 
volved, two bills have been introduced to modify the prohibition 
law locally: one by Congressman Pierce of Oregon which would af- 
fect the Klamath Indians of Oregon and one by Congressman O'Connell 
of Montana, which would authorize the issuance of permits to the 
Indians of Flathead to purchase light wines and beer. At this date, 
neither bill seems likely to pass the present Congress, since neith- 
er had, at the date of writing - June 13 - been reported out of the 
Congressional committees on Indian affairs. In the meantime, the 
Office of Indian Affairs is eager to have thoughtful comment on the 
prohibition question as affecting Indians. 



DISTRICT CAMP SUPERVISOR RECEIVES AQUATIC INSTRUCTOR ' S CERTIFICATE 
By John P. Watson, In Charge, CCC-ID Safety Division 



The American Red Cross completed a threes-day Aquatic Ex- 
aminer' s Training course at Spokane, Washington late in April, un- 
der the supervision of Ralph E. Carlson, National Red Cross Repre- 
sentative • 

Gerrit Smith, CCC-ID District Camp Supervisor, in charge 
of the Safety Program in District 5, was one of the successful can- 
didates. By completing this training Mr. Smith is qualified to 
conduct courses and give examinations for four types of aquatic 
certificates: Beginners, Swimmers, Junior Life Saving and Senior 
Life Saving, according to standards established by the American 
Red Cross. Having previously passed the Red Cross First Aid In- 
structor's examination, Mr. Smith is now qualified to give exam- 
inations for Standard First-Aid certificates as well. 

• 

Training in aquatic safety is a mandatory phase of the 
CCC-ID Safety Program for selected enrolled personnel at agencies 
and in camps throughout the service. 



CROW FAIR DATES SET FOR AUGUST 29 - SEPTEMBER 2 



The Crow Fair has become known not only throughout the 
Northwest but in the E a st as well. The Northern Cheyennes will 
take part in the show this year, as well as the Crows, and the Fort 
Peck Indian band has been engaged to furnish music for the occasion. 

The Crow Fair is unique as an Indian-planned and Indian- 
executed event. Careful plans are being made to accommodate visitors, 



26 



OLD ABMY AND MARINE CORPS CLOTH I NO PUT TO GOOD USE 



The ingenuity of Indian women in making attractive and 
serviceable garments out of surplus or worn Array and Marine CorpB 
goods is illustrated by reports sent in by Mrs. Helen M. Carlson, 
Home Economics teacher at the Makah Reservation, Tulalip, Washington 
and by Miss Ella M. Stubbs, Home Economics teacher at the Tulalip 
Agency. 

From remnants and short lengths of blue denim and gabar- 
dine, from blue broadcloth Marine coats, khaki pants, heavy Army 
overcoats, and Army woolen underwear, Indian women retrieved the 
good parts and cut and fashioned a variety of auilts and garments. 




The Bathing Suits Worn By These Wean Bay 
Children Were Once Army Woolen Drawers 






A Short Cotton 

Coat Made This 

Child's Suit 



The Top Half Of This 

Outfit Was A Marine 

Coat; The Lower Half 

Was Made From Worn 

Army Pants 



Franklin Charles 
Wears A Suit Made 
From A Marine Coat 



2? 



THE AMERICAN INDIAN SIGN LANGUAGE 

By John P. Harrington, Smithsonian Institution 

( Note : This is Section 2 of an article on the American Indian 
Sign Language. The first section appeared in the issue of March 1938) 

The old Indians laugh when they tell the story of how an early white man, ob- 
serving Indians using the sign language, thought they were child-like persons who had 
not developed a full normal speech. The fact was that the early white man was observing 
the most marvelous gesture development to he found on any continent, comparable to the 
invention of the Chinese ideographs in the Old World. 

Proof That . The Signs Are Based On Spoken Language 

Since signs flow freely from the expert user, it might seem that they are in- 
dependent of the spoken word. But such is not the case. The signs are everywhere based 
on spoken language and reflect it at every turn. The word order, the syntax, the vocab- 
ulary (the peculiar bundles of concepts tied together under the label of each word) of 
the American Indian sign language all prove it to be based, originally and constantly, 
on the spoken language of the user, whatever Indian idiom he happens to use as his daily 
speech. For a brilliant example to prove this one needs to go no further than to word 
order. The sign for God is a compound one, consisting of a sign meaning medicine , mys- 
tery, or spirit , according to the various spoken languages, and of a sign meaning big . 
In the Kiowa language the spoken form is daa'k' ia-'eidl , meaning medicine-big , and the 
Kiowa makes first the sign for medicine and then the sign for big- In the Ojibway lan- 
guage the spoken form is Kih t ci-mani too , big-spirit , and the Ojibway makes first the 
sign for big and then the sign for spirit . To one familiar with Indian languages, simi- 
lar corroborating turns of phrasing occur frequently in the sign language. The sign us- 
ers witnessed by the early white man not only possessed a vocabulary of perhaps more 
than a thousand signs, but these were superimposed on a spoken language no less developed 
than the beauteous and bounteous Greek. 





Compound Sign For God As Used 
By The Kiowa: Medicine-Big - 




Compound Sign For God As Used 
By The Ojibway: Big- Spirit . 



Certain Signs Exceed In Nicety Spoken Language 

Let us consider the sign for house and its modification for tipl ■ As we shall 
see on the following page, this sign is a combination of substitution of the indexes for 
the poles which form the profile of the house plus the principle of characteristic out- 
line for a whole. When the tips of the indexes are not crossed, house in general is re- 
presented; when the tips of the indexes are crossed, tipl is represented, indicating the 
tip! construction in which the poles stick out at the top. Here, in sign language, a 
clever difference in the adjustment of the tips of the fingers (and we could show precise- 
ly such instances in Chinese writing) changes the meaning of the word, while in spoken 
language the same change has to be effected by replacement by an entirely different word, 
or by cumbersome affixing or compounding. For the sign for tip! see the illustration 
following. 28 







Tipi. Cross tips of extended indexes, holding 

indexes in inverted V-shape to substitute them 

for the poles at edges of profile of tipi. 

Posed by Gray Wolf (Bob Hofsinde). 

Photograph, Courtesy of Gray Wolf • 

Comparison Of The American Indian Sign Language With The 

Deaf -Mute Sign Language Of The Whites 

Two systems of sign talk, non-alphabetic and alphabetic, have been invented 
for and introduced among the Caucasian, and other, deaf, and mute, and those having a 
combination of these handicaps. There are two-handed and one-handed alphabetic systems. 
In actual practice deaf-mutes largely employ the alphabetic system, with frequent short- 
cuts of non-alphe.betic signs. For instance, one points at self for "I", but spells out 
with the fingers " sm-p-p-o-s-e" - just as the Japanese form of Chinese writing uses non- 
syllabic characters alone for the commonest words, but accompanies them by syllabic char- 
acters for less common words - a remarkable parallel- 



New Analysis Of The Signs Is Here Presented 

The two fundamental component factors in the building up of the American In- 
dian sign language are: 1. indication by gesturing at, or painting. 2. representation 

29 



■by substitution or by mimicking the action or state of, that which is designated. These 
factors work out to appear as the following twenty elements which constitute the signs, 
some signs being analyzed to contain two, three, or more, elements. 

I. gesturing At. The element of simply pointing at or gesturing at is effici- 
ent for designating those objects or abstractions which everywhere accompany the individ- 
ual- By this method are designated: 1. cardinal directions and regions; 2- the person- 
al and demonstrative pronouns, subjective, objective, indirective, possessive (for dem- 
onstratives as adverbs of place, see 19 below); 3. the body parts of one's own body; 4. 
colors of almost universal occurrence in nature, such as black and white. 




1. Cardinal Directions 




Up. Point Index Upward. 
H H 15. 



Down . Point Index 
Downward . 



Personal And Demonstrative Pronouns 




I_, me, my . 
Point Index At 
Chest. H I 1. 




Me. 2nd element 
in: tell me! 

Place hand palm 

up , tip of hand 
forward, at chin, 

then jerk hand 
backward. H T 11. 



You , your . 
Point index at 

2nd person, 
real or imagin- 
ary. H T 5. 



You , 2nd element 
in: I tell you. 
Place hand palm 
up, tip of hand 
forward, then 
jerk hand for- 
ward. H I 12. 



w? 



He , him , his , visible. 
_Point in backhanded 
manner toward 3rd per- 
son. H H 20, H H 22. 





He, etc. , invisible. 
Gesture in backhanded 
manner toward rear. 
H H 22. 

3. Body Parts 



This , here , that , there . 

Point index at object or 

locality. H P 17, 

H P 18. 




/V 

jSar. Point at ear. H E 1. But to heal 
is action mimicking: hold cupped hand 
behind ear. 30 




Throat . 
Point at throat. 



4. Certain Colors 




Black. Point at 

eyebrows, at hair, 

or at some black 

object near one. 




White . Point at some 

whi te object near 
one (hardly at one's 
own teeth, for that 
would be misunderstood). 



II. gesturing At Localit y O f Occurrence . Gesturing at, or other indications 
of, the place of occurrence replaces indication of the object or abstraction. This is 
contained, e. g. , as the first element in the sign to think, thought. 




To thinfr , thought . Gesture at heart, and then 
bring hand forward, to gesture thought coming forth from 
the heart. Gesturing at locality of occurrence plus ac- 
tion mimicry. 



III. Painting . The various spoken languages of the sign talkers call this ele- 
ment "painting." We would call it outlining. One outlines the figure of an object by 
tracing it with the hand or hands in mid-air. 

_ --XX ■ 



£' 





Wheel , wagon . Paint 
vertical circle with index. 

By modifying the tracing 

of circles, several wheels 

and the going or 

coming of a wheeled 

vehicle is indicated. 



Vaul t . sunrise , 

sunset , noon . 

Hold spread thumb 

and index down 

toward left and 

paint semicircle 

moving toward right, 

first up and then down. 

H S 55. 




Corral . Bring both open 
hands together and 
paint away from self 
horizontal outline of a 

corral, each hand 

describing semicircle. 

H~C 26. 



IV. Substitution . In substitution a body part of the sign user, most common- 
ly a finger or manual part, and its posture, is made to represent, i.e., to substitute 
for, the object or abstraction. Sometimes the substitution is of the outline of object. 



31 





Man . Elevate index 

with back forward in 

front of face. Ill 3. 



Beard . Hang hand 

under chin with 

fingers extended. 




Coin . Make ring 

with thumb and 

index. H D 27. 




Half coin , fifty cent 

piece - Make ring with 

thumb and index of 

left hand. Lay right 

index across ring 

so as to divide. Also 

means half of any 

round object. 




Big . Curve the thumb 

SJs^ and fingers of 

*T\y both hands as if 

TjL representing the 

<^-** \ surface of an 

^•-^ \ imaginary sizeable 

\ sphere. 



V- Action Mimicry . The sign user's hand or body part is made to mimic or imi- 
tate the action or motion, actual or desired, of an object or abstraction. 



To go, go awav ! 

To shoo away. 

Gesture forward 

extended hand, 

palm turned to 

left. 




To come , come! 
Beckon toward 
chest. H C 22. 




To twinkle ,, 

Snap index 

by releasing it 

from end of 

thumb. 




* * 



To lighten . 
Slevate index 
and with band 
trace downward 
zigzag path of 
lightning. 



VI . Instrument Action Mimicry , 
gets across the idea of the instrument. 



Awl . Bore right 
index into left 
palm. 



The mimicking of the action of an instrument 





Saw . Mimic the 
action of 
sawing. 



(To Be Continued In The August Issue) 



32 



MONTANA INDIAN GIRL WTN3 ESSAY PRIZE 
By Mrs. Julia. Schutz, Gros Ventre State Chairman Indier Welfare, 
General Federation of Women's Clubs of Montana- 




Leona Cochran 



We are all proud of Leona Cochran, 
a Gros Ventre girl who is a seventh-grade 
student at the Harlem, Montana, public school. 
She was the winner of the prize offered by 
the Montana Association for the Prevention 
of Tuberculosis of the General Federation 
of Women's Clubs for the best essay on tu- 
berculosis and its prevention. 

Five prizes were offered among 
the seven Montana Indian reservations. 
Leona not only won the prize for Fort Bel- 
knap, but also the grand prize of $10-00 
given by the National President of the Gen- 
eral Federation of Women's Clubs, Mrs- Ro- 
berta Campbell Lawson. 



WASHINGTON OFFICE VISITORS 



Recent visitors to the Washington Office* have included 
the following: Superintendent Earl Woolridge of Rocky Boy's Agency 
in Montana; L. C. Lippert, Superintendent of the Standing Rock 
Agency in North Dakota; and A. C. Monahan, Regional Coordinator for 
Oklahoma. 

Also included in the Washington Office visitors were the 
Standing Rock delegation and the Kiowa Delegation. Members of the 
Standing Rock delegation were: Willis Mountain, Percy Tibbeto, 
J. R. Harmon, Mrs. Josepine Kelly, Mrs. Mary Long Chase and Mary M. 
Wounds. Members of the Kiowa delegation were: M. M. Bedoka (Caddo), 
Delos K. Lonewolf and son (Kiowa), and Felix Koweno (Comanche). 

Other visitors were: Miss Mabel Morrow, Senior Instruc- 
tor of Home Economics from Sequoyah Training School in Tahlequah, 
Oklahoma; Mr. J. Sidney Rood, Acting General Reindeer Supervisor 
from Nome, Alaska; Delos Lonewolf, Kiowa, and Felix Kowena, Comanche, 
from the Kiowa Agency in Oklahoma. 



33 




o 

»-^ 

x» 
co 



I 



•H 

t5 



S 
OT 

d 






3 
fe 




9 



® 



o 

© 
c 
e 
o 

CO 

«o 
J3 



a 

CO 

Si 






CD 
U 
O 



34 



SOUTHWESTERN RESERVATIONS PREPARE FOR FIRE SEASON : FIBJjj TRAINING- 
CAMP MJ AT FORT APACHE . ARIZONA 
By Dewayne Kreager, Camp Supervisor, CCC-ID 




The Fire School Occupied A Convenient Location In The Timber 



As preparation for the approach of summer, and with it 
the ever-present danger of forest fires, Indian CCC-ID enrollees 
from five reservations in three southwestern states gathered at 
the Fort Apache Reservation the latter part of April to attend the 
second annual Indian Service Southwest Regional Fire Training Camp 

The camp was located in the timber on a bluff overlooking 
the North Fork of the White River, some twelve miles north of the 
agency. Work of the school consisted of instruction and practical 
demonstrations of radio and telephone communication, fire detec- 
tion, fire suppression, fire-camp operation, fire damage estima- 
tion, care and handling of tools and equipment, packing, determina- 
tion of fire causes, safety, sanitation and first aid. Careful 



35 



attention was given to the organizational set-up of the Regional 
Fire Control Plan, which insures cooperation from outside jurisdic- 
tions in the event that one reservation is confronted with a seri- 
ous fire which it cannot control through its own resources alone. 

While the fire school was still in progress, a small fire 
broke out near the camp, providing the opportunity for the men to 
put into practical use many things which they had learned. 

In addition to the instruction features, Mr. Silas 0. 
Davis, Senior Forest Ranger in charge of fire control on the Fort 
Apache Reservation, who had charge of the school, prepared two hy- 
pothetical fire problems to serve as practical contests, one for 
the enrollees and one for instructors. Robert Gatewood, Indian en- 
rollee from the Fort Apache Reservation, won a hunting knife for the 
best solution in the enrollee problem, scoring twenty-nine out of a 
possible thirty-two points. John W. Allan, Forest Supervisor for 
San Carlos won a jackknife for the best solution in the contest for 
instructing personnel. 

The results of such training in the past has greatly re- 
duced the tremendous losses by forest fires, and it is felt that 
the instruction the men have received at this fire school will prove 
of untold value in protecting, preserving and developing the value- 
able timber areas on their reservations. 




Indian Enrollees And Part Of Fire Camp Personnel 
Assembled In Lecture Tent 



36 



ZUgl THE CENTER 

Excerpted, With Permission of J. J. Augustin, The Publisher, From 
"First Penthouse Dwellers Of America", by Dr. Euth M. Under hi 11. 



•I 



' ■■■■ ■ ■ • ■ 

..... .... . ■■ 



i. 



: 








One drives " through modern streets among houses 



no longer terraced. 



Long ago, when the disc of earth was new and quivering, 

the people of the underworld climbed up to it, mounting a pine, a 

spruce, a pinyon and a cottonwood. 

...At every pause they sang all their sacred songs, which 
are the very ones that are sung now when the dancers stamp in the 
plaza, waving spruce boughs and rattles and masked in turquoise and 
yellow and white. Thus they came up through sulphur-smell-inside- 
the-world, soot-inside-the-world, fog-inside-the-world, until they 
stood forth into the daylight of their Sun Father. 



37 



Then they went searching for the center of the earth disc. 

They found it and they built a town which they called Itiwana and 

the whites called Zuni. 

Earth Center has moved a little since the Spaniards first 
found it, and it has shrunk. In 1540, there were six small towns 
spread through a pleasant valley with Halona, the central one, al- 
most where Zuni is now. Here was no mountain fortress like those 
in which the Hopi held out against their enemies. The villagers, 
when they had to, fled to their sacred mountain, Towalayane, and 
sometimes stayed aloft for years, but they always came back to the 
terraced houses among the cornfields. Bach village held two hundred 
people or more, so the chroniclers say, in the houses banked up four 
and five stories high ... 

Such were the Zuni villages, but far different was the 
picture of them which formed in Spanish minds. When rumors of large 
and powerful villages to the north penetrated down through the moun- 
tains to Mexico, the treasure of the Aztecs had long ago been thrown 
into the melting pot. Those who had missed their share of it were 
straining and jumping for another chance and, almost out of thin 
air, they concocted the myth of the Seven Cities of Cibola. 

Those who finally found those seven cities, of which our 

Zuni is now the only one left, were a Spanish priest and a Negro, 

Esteban, hero of one of the most grotesque and fantastic series of 

adventures in all history. The next year came Coronado, with his 

train of conquistadores, in brass helmets and leather hauberks. 

. • -Little Hawikuh was the goal of the invading army and 
that army was hungry. "We could not obtain anything to eat," re- 
ported one of the soldiers, "unless we captured it.... so it was 
necessary to attack and kill some of them." 

It was a pathetic battle. The Zuni threw stones from 
their walls at the glittering helmet of Coronado and hurt him so that 
his face was sore afterward. Four or five Spaniards had arrow 
wounds and some horses were killed. Then the Indians moved out of 
their town and took refuge on the sacred mountain whither they must 
flee from time to time through the three centuries to come. The 
hungry Spaniards moved in . . .A geographic accident prevented the 



38 



Zunis 1 maintaining the wild independence of Hopi . They were not 
far enough away and they were not on a mesa. Inward independence 
was quite another matter- Zuni raised wheat and sheep and went 
to church, and Zuni maintained its individuality so completely 
that it is even today the focus of pueblo life: the earth center. 

The rebellion came in 1680 and the Zuni joined it. Tradi- 
tion says that they even swung the Hopi into line, for before this 
the Peaceful had prevented disturbance because they preferred their 
own quiet methods. Tradition says also that there was one Zuni 
priest who was not killed. True, he disappeared, but there are 
lasting tales that, since he was a good man of whom they were really 
fond, the Zuni offered to spare his life if he would dress like them 
and be adopted into the tribe. He accepted. The Zuni moved out of 
all their towns as they did when danger threatened and took refuge 
on holy Towayalane. Perhaps the priest was with them and perhaps 
he saved the holy images and the church vessels. At least when the 
Spaniards came back twelve years later, they found the people still 
on the mountain but preserving those sacred things which "rejoiced 
the conquerors as evidence of their earlier Christian state." 

The Spaniards ' return marks the beginning of modern Zuni . 
Wild Apache had destroyed one. of their villages. The inhabitants 
of all five others had huddled for twelve years on their nearby 
mountain afraid to come down and meet the punishment awaiting them. 
When a sadder and wiser Spain offered peace, few went beck to the 
old homes. They gathered in Halona, the Earth Center, which grew 
until it sheltered them all, with four new villages among the fields 
for summer residence. They appointed a secular governor as Spanish 
decree demanded, and he is still there to perform the extraneous 
business of dealing with the whites. They built a church. Let no 
one think however, that the art, the ceremonies, or the life of Zuni 
has paled. The priests of the sun and the rain still meet to rule 
the village. 

Zuni went through some bad years while Spain declined and 
the new republic of Mexico struggled hopelessly with wild Navajo 
and Apache. No one helped the little pueblo in her own struggles 
and she did what she could. At one time the Zuni had acquired a 
hundred Navajo captives and feeding them grew expensive, so they 
put them in the plaza, with two Zuni warriors at each corner, and 
told them to escape if they could. None did. 

In 1848 Mexico was rather forcibly persuaded to give up 
a large stretch of her northern country to the United States which 
wished to build a railroad. The country included Zuni. In 1877 a 
reservation was set aside for these "honest and virtuous people" 
who were such a relief after the turbulent nomads. It took a long 



39 



time for the declining population to take an upward turn, but by 
1933 it was 2,021, with an increase of 82 since 1910. The four 
outside farming villages, which had been only camps, began to grow 
now that danger was over. If they and the population go on increas- 
ing, there may some day actually be seven cities of Cibola. 

There are day schools at two of them already and a high 
school at Zuni proper. Every child in Zuni speaks English now and 
no one stays out of school, say the reports, any more than in a 
white community. A few miles from the town stand a hospital and a 
sub-agency, and there are two churches, a Catholic and a Protestant, 
to replace the ruined one. That one the Zuni will neither repair 
nor destroy. 

The town of Zuni still lives, with the cornfields waving 
up to the very doors of the neat screened houses, with flowers in 
the dooryard, oilcloth and kitchen cabinets within. Zuni makes com- 
petent use of mowing machines and canning equipment. Its girls at- 
tend 4-H clubs; its boys can drive automobiles. Meantime, the an- 
cient system of life goes on, the great ceremonies usher the year 
on its course. 

The dances go on. If the inner tubes of automobile tires 
sometimes repla.ce earth reddened buckskin, if Germantown yarn is 
substituted for strings of turquoise, does that mean that the essence 
of the ceremony has suffered? These things may in time become sacred 
as anything can that is used by a living religion. The wistful ques- 
tion of the white observer is whether this beautiful group unison, 
this manifold emotional satisfaction, is bound up by the mandate of 
history with the growing of corn by hand. Can none of it be brought 
over into a world of ploughs and machines and offices? How could 
the wisest Zuni do it? How could the wisest white, man help him? 



A map of the Pueblos, of Arizona and New Mexico, would 
not now show Zuni at the center. Many have been the viscissitudes 
attacking this group of ancient Indian villages, the most highly 
civilized within the boundaries of the United States. Those viscis- 
situdes, from the early prehistoric times which are only guessed 
at down through the march of the armored Spaniards to the soil ero- 
sion problems of the present day, form the subject of First Pent - 
house Dwellers Of America , the story of the Pueblos. 



40 



The book presents vividly for the average reader, the 
fascinating archaeological data which are growing, year by year, 
into a coherent picture. Where did the Pueblo Indians come from? 
How long have they been there? What was happening in that desert, 
which was once well-watered country, in the years when the Britons 
lived in wattled huts and the birth of Columbus was centuries ahead.? 
Students of primitive man are only beginning to realize how many 
different groups must have come into America in the days anywhere 
from ten to twenty thousand years ago and they look past the 
pueblos back to these earliest immigrants, then to new invasions 
and to a civilization so firmly knit that it persists to the pres- 
ent day. 

From a chapter on the "First Immigrants" the book passes 
to "The Peaceful Hopi M ; their long and surprising history, which 
includes the use of coal; their dauntless struggle with the Span- 
iards who reached their country long before the Pilgrims landed on 
Plymouth Rock and their slow change to the mastery of modern craft 
and trade. "Zuni* the Center," comes next with its mixture of 
gorgeous ancient ceremony and practical up-to-date farming. "The • 
Warriors of Keres" treats that interesting and aloof group of vil- 
lages headed by Santo Domingo, most conservative of all Indian 
towns. 

A glimpse at the wild events of Spanish history will ex- 
plain much of the grim secrecy with which the Keres guard their 
sacred traditions. Similar events befell the Catholic Tewa but 
they, in the rich valley of the Rio Grande, found aloofness impos- 
sible. The interesting steps in the history of these towns, po 
outwardly Spanish, so inherently Indian, throw light on the Rio 
Grande proolems of the present day. Last, on the very border of 
Pueblo land, stands Taos by the Buffalo Country. Half Plains, half 
Pueblo, with its blanketed figures, beak-nosed between their braided 
hair, Taos has traditions from the land of the buffalo and the tipi 
as well as from that of corn and stone buildings. 

How are the practices and beliefs, so firmly held to by 
all these varied groups, to be used as building foundation for the 
new practices that must come? It is this question which is con- 
stantly posed as the history of each village unrolls before our eyes 
showing, through the pressure of events, some constant character in 
each. The Pueblos, as any worker among Indians knows, have never 
stood still. They have changed and learned for centuries, adapting 
each new bit of knowledge to the life which they found good. Will 
the latest change be too rapid for them to accept and still keep 
their vitality? This is a problem for other Indian areas as well. 
A vivid and sympathetic history such as that found in First Pent - 
house Dwellers Of Ameri ca should help with the understanding of it- 



41 



INDIANS IN THE NEWS 



APACHES . ONCE TERRORS OF WEST . NOW WIN BATTLE FOR EXISTENCE 

Tribe Which Was Sent to Florida "Prison" For Rebellion 
Against United States Sets a Good Record For Making 
a Living on New Mexico Reservation 

By Paul I. Wellman 
(From The Kansas City Star , Kansas City, Missouri, April 21, 1938.) 

The hand of Indians which once terrorized the entire 
Southwest, successfully fought against 5,000 United States sol- 
diers, and surrendered only when the governments of Mexico and the 
United States pooled their resources against it, is making a record 
of civilized progress, which is almost as surprising as its war 
record. 

On the White Tail division of the Mescalero Agency, are 
perhaps ninety survivors of the Chiricahua Apaches, led by Geron- 
imo in the last great Indian rebellion of the Southwest. Among 
them are some of the old warriors who took part in the actual 
fighting, but many of them are descendants of the original group. 
Whatever their connection, they have made an exceptional record 
since being moved to this reservation from Fort Sill, Oklahoma in 
1912. 

The record of the Geronimo band was a sorrowful one for 
a time. After the Apache wars, in which an estimated 2,000 white 
persons and Mexicans lost their lives, the Indians numbering only 
a few score were induced by Captain Gatewood to surrender in 1386 
to Brigadier General Nelson A. Miles. They were then shipped to 
Fort Marion, Florida, where they were held as prisoners of war. 
Later they were moved to Alabama., and finally to Fort Sill, where 
they were still held as prisoners of war. 

The efforts of Dr. Henry Roe Cloud, now of Wichita, 
Kansas, and formerly head of the Haskell Indian Institute at Law- 
rence, Kansas, brought about their release. Dr. Roe Cloud, then 
a young Winnebago Indian student at Yale, discovered, in reading 
the laws of the United States, that it is not lawful to "work a 
corruption of blood." In other words, children cannot be punished 
for the crimes of their parents. He brought to the attention of 

42 



the Supreme Court the fact that there were third end even fourth 
generation Apache children, who never had "been on the warpath, being 
held as "prisoners of war" by the government at Fort Sill. As a 
result, the Indians were ordered freed and permitted to go to the 
reservation in New Mexico, where their kinfolk, the Me9calero 
Apaches, lived. 

The Indians of that agency were among the first to adopt 
the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act. JS. R. McCray is 
superintendent of the agency, and under his administration nearly 
all offices are held by Indians. George A. Day, chief clerk and 
Nathan J. Head, head of the logging operations, are both Indians. 

There are at present 183 families of Indians, totaling 
760 persons, on this reservation which contains nearly 475,000 
acres of beautiful timbered mountain land and small fertile valleys . 

Surprisingly, the Apaches have shown a disposition to 
work, and they have made some real progress economically. Their 
chief income so far is from live stock. Last year they sold 2,054 
cattle, and their entire receipts from all live stock sources, in- 
cluding wool and mohair, was $105,000. They own 6,000 purebred 
cattle, 8,000 sheep, 4,000 goats and many horses. 

A second source of income is logging of the forests which 
brought in an income of around $40,000 last year. 

Many of the Indians are farmers, and the total receipts 
from farm products last year was nearly $30,000. 

Under the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act, 
the tribe has borrowed $240,000 from the government, and a new 
home is being constructed for every family on the reservation. The 
lumber for these homes is obtained in trade for logs cut and hauled 
for the reservation. As a result, houses which would normally cost 
$2,500 are being built by the Apaches for around $1,200 apiece. 

Incidentally the Mescalero Apaches, which includes Geron- 
imo's old tribe, are better off economically than many white fami- 
lies. With the exception of the old, unprogressive "rationers" who 
are kept by themselves and allowed to live under government bounty, 
the Indians on the reservation had an income last year averaging 
$1,050 apiece, from the combined profits of their products. The 
reservation is rich in natural resources, and coal, copper and per- 
haps oil may be added to their income-producing factors in the 
future . 

( Note : "Indians At Work" will print, from time to time, 
interesting excerpts from local newspaper accounts of events in- 
volving Indians.) 



43 



NAVAJO FOREST FIRE CONTROL SCHOOL HE LD AT 



FORT DEFIANCE, ARIZONA , MAY 2-6 . 



By DeWayne Kreager, Camp Supervisor, CCC-ID 




Enrollees Attending The Navajo 
Fire Control School. 



There are 600,000 
acres of commercial- type 
timber on the Navajo and 
more than a million acres 
of woodland and crush. Fire 
protection, consequently, 
is of vital importance to 
Navajo economy. At the an- 
nual fire control school, 
young Navajos learn effec- 
tive methods for preventing 
and dealing with fires. 

The photograph 
at the left shows the nine- 
teen Navajo enrollees who 
attended this year's schodl. 



Fire suppression for the Navajo is under the general su- 
pervision of Mr. H. E. Holman, Director of Land Use. In immediate 
charge of the 1938 fire school was L. R. Kenefick, Assistant Forest- 
er, assisted hy L. F. Hamilton, Assistant Forester, Bob Matson, Jun- 
ior Range Examiner, Carl Bartells, Telephone Foreman, and others of 
the Navajo field personnel. Claude C. Cornwall, Regional Camp Su- 
pervisor, and DeWayne Kreager, Camp Supervisor from the Phoenix Of- 
fice assisted in the instruction work. 

All of the nineteen Navajo Indians attending the school 
were CCC-ID enrollees, specially selected for their aptitude in for- 
est fire control work. This fire control school provides an excel- 
lent example of off-the-job enrollee training that later proves its 
practical use in values than can be reckoned in thousands of dol- 
lars of decreased forest losses through fire. 



COVER PAGE 

The two Apache babies pictured on the cover live at the 
Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona. 



44 



N0TL3 r*OM WtCKLY PROGRESS REPORTS OF 
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS ~ INDIAN DIVISION 



_Camp_ Ground Development At Salem 
Indian School ( Oregon ) All the en- 
rollees at the Chemawa Camp attended 
the first-aid class. They learned 
how to use a lathe in the proper man- 
ner, the use of wood turning tools, 
the use of a buck saw, the uses of 
mitre and the advantages of wood 
filler. James L. Shawver , Dairyman . 

Varied Activities At Quapaw In - 
dian Agency ( Oklahoma ) The enrollee 
and recreational programs have been 
started here and considerable inter- 
est has been displayed on the part 
of the personnel and the enrollees. 
A great interest has also been shown 
by the families of the various com- 
munities. 

We have started our First-Aid 
and Safety program with a total en- 
rollment of 65 men from the three 
groups. The First-Aid classes and 
Safety meetings are being divided 
into three separate enrollments for 
the first half of the month; each 
group meeting once a week. 

Included in our recreational 
program has been the organization 
of three baseball t^ams which will 
form an inter-project league. We 
shall form one all-star team from 
the three project teams and hope to 
have a good baseball club. Frank 
Nolan . 

Landscaping Work At Five Civil - 
ized Tribes ( Oklahoma ) The men have 
been doing a great deal of work and 
have made a fine showing this week. 
The dump trucks have been kept very 
busy with hauling topsoil and sever- 
al loads have been hauled. Some of 



the men have been burning brush and 
other similar jobs. Floyd B. Cham- 
bers . 

We have recently completed all 
of the concrete work on the truck 
sheds, the cesspool and a grease rack- 
Other work that kept the boys busy 
was the grading up and around the of- 
ficers ' quarters and supply room. 
The plumbing work has also been prac- 
tically completed, leaving but lit- 
tle of this type of work yet to be 
done. Charles Kilgore , Clerk . 

Blister Rust Control At Keshena 
( Wisconsin ) Most of the enrollees 
are employed on the white pine blis- 
ter rust project. New infection a- 
reas are being treated every day to 
make everyone realize the importance 
of this work. The crews are really 
covering ground at a rapid rate be- 
cause the bushes are easily sighted 
at this season of the year. 

The fire presuppression crew 
is working on the grounds around the 
nursery buildings and is doing a real 
good job. Walter Ridlington , Proj - 
ect Manager. 

Camp Maintenance At Naval o 
(Chin Lee - Arizona ) During the past 
week much was accomplished toward 
the improvement of the camp. New 
locks and screen doors were put on 
the barracks for the purpose of 
greater camp protection. 

Now that we are having some 
nice weather, Mr. Howard and his 
kitchen force are doing much toward 
better sanitation in the mess hall. 
William A. Baultt, Clerk. 



45 



Truck Trail Maintenance At Choc - 
taw-Chickasaw Sanatorium ( Oklahoma ) 
The work on the truck trail mainte- 
nance on Buffalo Mountain has been 
going along very nicely. The work 
consisted of filling in washes, cuts, 
opening up of ditches and drains and 
so forth. 

This truck trail was beginning 
to get in bad condition due to heavy 
rainfall which caused considerable 
washing and cutting up of the trail. 
This caused the filling up of ditches 
in places and the stoppage of culvert 
drains. We believe, however, that 
within the course of a short time 
we will have this trail in very good 
condition. Tony Winlock , Leader , 
CCC-ID . 

Shelter belt Work At Pine Ridge 
( South Dakota ) When this project was 
completed there were 78, COO trees 
planted and there are still a few 
hundred to be planted at the cot- 
tages . There were 10 acres to be 
planted. Some of these trees came 
from the nursery at Vermillion in 
South Dakota and another group of 
trees came from the nursery at Rapid 
City in South Dakota. James Iron 
Cloud , Group Foreman . 

Recently we found a young or- 
phan buffalo but could not find its 
mother . So we took her over to the 
American Day School at Allen where 
they offered to feed it and care for 
it for about three weeks, at which 
time we would turn it out with the 
rest of the herd. Paul Valandry , 
Camp Attendant . 

Truck Trail Construction At 
Great Lakes ( Wisconsin ) Construc- 
tion on the Lake Shore Drive Truck 
Trail, Project #202 D 144, has again 
been resumed. The U. S. Forest Serv- 



ice is furnishing the heavy equipment 
which consists of one fresno and two 
bulldozers for' this construction work- 
The crews have been clearing the 
right-of-way, stumping Dy dynamiting 
and making ditch lines for drainage.- 

The Grants Creek Bridge, Project 
#104 D 392 has also been resumed. A 
side camp with crew of 17 men have 
been started for this project. This 
bridge will have a 12-foot span, with 
an all timber construction. It is 
believed that this bridge will be 
completed before July. Louis Chingwa, 
Assistant Leader . 

Bridge Maintenance At Col vi lie 
( Washington ) The work of rebuilding 
bridges is coming along rapidly. One 
bridge is finished and another is 
nearly completed- Due to the unusual- 
ly high waters on the reservation 
this year, several bridges went out 
and some have been endangered. This 
necessitated extensive rebuilding 
and repair work. 

With the cooperation of Ferry 
County, we are getting our trails 
back into good condition. The Ferry 
County is supplying the gasoline for 
the maintenance work. William J. 
Pooler . 

Tree Planting At Standing Rock 
( North Dakota ) We planted Cotton- 
woods, Cherry trees, Caragana, Choke 
Cherry trees 'and a few wild trees 
along the dams in the agency district. 
P. Yellow Hammer . 

Our tree planting project has 
been completed and we are hoping 
they will grow as the soil is very 
sandy and there are no signs of 
moisture. 

Erosion Control At Mission (Cal- 



k6 



ifornia) The crew that is working 
on erosion control has completed 
building the rock and wire check 
dam on Gardner Creek. This dam was 
built in the vicinity of the check 
dams which were constructed last 
fall and which have been filled with 
sediment resulting from the winter 
rains. In the same locality, about 
8,000 of the recent shipment of Honey 
Locust trees were heeled in near the 
creek so that they may be planted 
in desirable places this coming fall. 
About 2,800 Desert Willows were also 
planted. 

At the permanent dam on Manzan- 
ita Creek, excavation for the footing 
has been completed. One large boul- 
der which was not intact was shot 
out. The pouring of concrete will 
be started as soon as the loose 
rock is cleaned out. W. A. Grin - 
nell . 

Recreational Activities At Warm 
Springs ( Oregon ) Baseball has been 
the main event in camp recreational 
activities. A meeting has been pro- 
posed to organize the players and 
to work out a schedule for the com- 
ing season. 

A ball game between the Agency 
Camp and the Old Mill Camp is sched- 
uled for the near future. Those 
showing the best playing ability in 
this game will be chosen for the 
reservation's "first string." In 
practice, all the boys show promis- 
ing material, but the judges at this 
game will determine who's who in 
baseball. Glen Nash . 

Truck Trail Maintenance At Mes - 
calero ( New Mexico ) The Auto Patrol 
has continued its maintenance work 
with good progress. All truck trails 
on the reservation are in fine shape 



because of the additional maintenance 
work and grading being done from time 
to time. Perfecto Garcia - 

Activities . At Yakima ( Washing - 
ton ) We had some excitement in camp 
over the week-end. It was a fire 
that was reported by one of our look- 
outs and a small crew was sent out . 
The crew had the fire under control 
very quickly. 

Tennis and horseshoes have 
proved to be very popular among many 
of the boys in camp. Every evening 
tennis matches and horseshoe games 
are played, much to the delight of 
the spectators as well as to the 
players themselves . Albert C. Sever - 
son , Leader . 

Fence Boundary Construction At 
Pipestone ( Minnesota ) Progress was 
slow this week on the fence boundary 
project due to a rocky formation 
several inches under the surface soil 
which made the digging of post holes 
very difficult. Indications are that 
the balance of the digging of post 
holes will move along at a more rap- 
id rate in the future. 

The men are hauling soil and 
leveling and widening the bottom of 
the ditch for a distance of about 
250 feet above the weir on the rip- 
rap rock project. After the correct 
slope is obtained for the bottom of 
the ditch, the sides will be graded 
off with a one to three-feet slope. 
This will require a team of horses 
to help the enrollees with the grad- 
ing of the ditch and the team will 
be furnished by the Pipestone School. 
This will help to keep down the ex- 
pense against this project. 

The tree planting project here 
showed good progress because of the 
favorable weather. G. R. Brown. 



^7 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 




3 9088 01625 0441